“Ben Ankara’yı coğrafya kitabından ziyade tarihten öğrendim ve cumhuriyet merkezi olarak öğrendim.”
“...Baylar, Lozan Antlaşmasının eklerinde olan boşaltma protokolu uygulandıktan sonra, her yeri düşman elinden kurtulan Türkiyenin bütünlüğü edimli olarak gerçekleşmişti. Artık yeni Türkiye Devleti'nin başkentini yasa ile saptamak gerekiyordu. Bütün düşünceler, yeni Türkiyenin başkentinin Anadolu'da ve Ankara şehri olması gerektiği noktasında toplanıyordu." Onuncu Yıl Nutku'ndan..
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Anıtkabir, the eternal resting place of the Great Leader Atatürk, founder of the Republic of Turkey, is located in the heart of Ankara.
The themes of reliefs and statues prepared for Anıtkabir are chosen from the history, the history of the Turkish War of Independence and the Republic, and Atatürk's life.
The Great Leader Atatürk, achieved success by getting the support of his nation during his struggle to create an independent Turkish Nation under the concept of a democratic state based on national sovereignty.
Atatürk instilled in his beloved nation that a nation's resoluteness and eagerness would save the independence and unity of the motherland against the invading enemy. It was this resoluteness and eagerness that enabled Atatürk to establish independent Republic of Turkey, and to make the necessary reforms to elevate Turkey to the level of contemporary civilization.
His illness worsened and he passed away in Dolmabahçe Palace on November 10, 1938, in the fifteenth year of the Republic. He did not have a grave built for himself; nor did he leave a testament regarding the place of interment.
In 1923, during a conversation, he said "Of course, I will die one day and you will bury me in Çankaya and keep my memory alive" and then added "Let my nation bury me where they want, but Çankaya will be the place my memory will continue to live ".
Anıtkabir, which is the expression of the great respect and appreciation of the Turkish Nation for their Great Leader, is the most meaningful work of the Republic of Turkey.
Atatürk's Residence During The War Of Independence And Railways Museum
THE SECOND GRAND NATIONAL ASSEMBLY OF TURKEY
The Republic Museum is in the building of the Second Grand National Assembly of Turkey. The building of the Second Grand National Assembly of Turkey was designed by the Architect Vedat Tek in 1923 as the Republican People’s Gathering Hall. However, when the First Grand National Assembly of Turkey became insufficient, the function of this building was changed with the orders of Atatürk and was arranged as the Assembly Building and was opened to service in October 18, 1924. The building was constructed in two floors on the basement with face stones. The window arches, china panels on surfaces, wide eaves, and the hand-carved wooden ceilings with Ottoman and Seljuk motifs reflect the architecture of “Republican Period”.
The building of the Second Grand National Assembly of Turkey is an important building that Atatürk’s principles and reforms were realized between 1924 and 1960, very important decisions were made for the development of our Republic, contemporary laws were passed, treaties favoring the international effectiveness and recognition of Turkey in the international arena were signed, and transition to a multi-party system was ensured. The second building of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey, which has an important place in the Turkish political life, continued functioning till May 27, 1960 for a period of 36 years.
When the Grand Assembly was carried to the newly constructed modern building in 1961, this building was assigned to the Central Treaty Organization (CENTO). With the abolishment of CENTO, which functioned between the years 1961 and 1979, the building was handed over to the Ministry of Culture within the same year. It was decided that the front part of the building would be arranged as the Republican Museum and back part as the service building of the General Directorate of Ancient Objects and Museum.
The museum part was arranged after the repair, restoration and exhibition arrangements, and was opened as the “Republican Museum” in 1981 in the structure of the Directorate of Independence War and Republican Museum. It gave services with this arrangement until 1985. In the same year, it was closed to visits and was re-opened in 1992 after the arrangements for exhibition. The museum building, which was closed to visits in 2001 for maintenance, repair and restoration works, was left closed for long years, and then the repair, restoration and exhibition-arrangement works were completed within one year according to the instructions of our Minister Mr. Ertuğrul Günay, and was opened to visits on October 29, 2008 with a contemporary understanding of exhibition.
We therefore thank to our Minister Mr. Ertuğrul Günay and to Mr. Orhan Düzgün, the General Director of Cultural Assets and Museums of the time and to all those who contributed with their efforts.
The Independence War (First Building of GNA of Turkey) Museum that was within the structure of Directorate of Independence War and Republic Museums was handed over to the Presidency of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey through the protocol signed between the Presidency of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey and the Ministry of Culture and Tourism on May 05, 2009.
The name of the Directorate for the Independence War and Republic Museums was changed to “Directorate for Republic Museum” through the decision of the Council of Ministers dated 11.03.2010 and numbered 2010/ 251.
In the exhibition of the Museum, events reflecting the periods of the first three Presidents of our Republic, their statements, photographs and some personal belongings are exhibited together with the laws passed and decisions made in their periods. The architectural construct of the building was also taken into consideration in the exhibition.
The chronology of exhibition in the Museum is arranged as follows:
THE ROOM OF THE SECOND GNA: This is the first room to the left of the museum entry. History of the building is exhibited with the support of photographs in this room. The stationery objects including the paper scissors, inkwell sets, and pencil sharpeners used by the Assembly, sample copies minutes of meetings and attendance books of the Representatives and the model of the building are exhibited in the showcases.
ROOM OF ATATÜRK PRINCIPLES AND REFORMS: This is the second room on the left of the Museum entrance. In this room, The “Atatürk Principles” including Republicanism, Nationalism, Populism, Statecraft, Laicism and Reformism and the political reforms including “Abolishment of Sultanate”, “Making Ankara the Capital”, and “Announcement of the Republic” are explained on the panels. Versions of the Great Speech in the Ottoman and Turkish languages, the microphone used in the Great Speech of the 10th Year and the phonograph record containing the 10th Year Speech are exhibited in the showcases.
ROOM OF ATATÜRK’S REFORMS: This is the third room to the left of the museum entry. In this room, the reforms in the legal area including “the Turkish Civil Law”, “Empowering Turkish Women to Vote and Being Elected”, reforms in the educational and cultural areas including “Unification of Education”, “Adoption of the New Turkish Alphabet” and “Establishment of the Turkish Language Institution and Turkish History Institution”; social reforms including “the Hat Act”, “the Surname Act”, “Adoption of International Time, Calendar, Digits and Measures and Weekend”, “Closing the Islamic Monasteries and Small Islamic Monasteries” and reforms in the economical and industrial areas through the establishment of the “Sümerbank Nazilli Cotton Mill” and “Alpullu Sugar Plant” are explained with the help of various object exhibited in showcases.
GAZİ MUSTAFA KEMAL ATATÜRK ROOM: This is the first room to right of the Museum entry. Life of Gazi Mustafa Kemal ATATÜRK, founder of the Republic of Turkey and the first President is exhibited in this room on the panels according to the chronological order and with the support of photographs; the articles about ATATÜRK in the foreign press are also included. In the showcases, accessories like attires, cufflinks, and pocket watches belonging to Atatürk, who was one of the men dressing in the most stylistic way, and the symbolic seal of the Presidency of the Republic with the phrase “Mustafa Kemal the President of the Republic of Turkey” a unique work of art made from solid gold in 1923. The seal is protected with a special alarm system.
İSMET İNÖNÜ ROOM: This is the second room to right of the Museum entry. In this room, attires of the President of the Republic İsmet İnönü and his personal belongings donated to the museum and the souvenir medal given to İsmet İnönü after the Lausanne Peace Treaty are exhibited in the panels.
CELAL BAYAR ROOM: This is the third room in the right of the Museum entrance. Life of Celal Bayar, third President of the Republic is explained on the panels in this room in chronologic order and supported with photographs. Attires and personal belongings of Celal Bayar donated by the Celal Bayar Foundation are exhibited in the showcases.
MEETING HALL OF THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY: This hall is across the museum entry, and was used as the Meeting Hall of the General Board of the Grand Assembly of Turkey between 1924 and 1960, and up to 600 representatives had worked in this hall. In the hall, there are 116 hundred-year old wooden benches.
Tribunal of the President is located in the midpoint of the entrances of this hall, boxes for the ambassadors are located in the right and left upper corners, the Honor Seat of the President of the Republic and the boxes for visitors and press are located at the back side of the hall.
The ceiling of the General Board Hall is coated with wooden panels containing eight strand stars inspired by the Seljuk and Ottoman ornamentation arts.
Atatürk’s Principles and Reforms were realized in this hall between 1924 and, contemporary acts were passed, important treaties were made, shifting to the multi-party system was ensured and Atatürk read his “Great Speech” here within the 6 days between October 15 and 27, 1927 for 36 hours and 33 minutes.
With the purpose of ensuring exhibition consistent with the contemporary museum works, and attributing an educational role to exhibitions, the “Assembly Opening Speech” of Atatürk in his own voice and a special cinevision movie showing him entering the Assembly Building on November 1, 1932 to give his opening speech are given.
SECOND FLOOR OF THE MUSEUM: In this floor, the Office of the Prime Minister, Office of the President of the Republic, Reception Room of the Presidency, Office of the President of the Assembly and the Offices of the Administrative Chiefs and Departmental Directorates are included respectively.
Rooms were arranged with original objects according to the photographs of the period. The original furniture that was brought from the Dolmabahçe Palace temporarily and used in the Assembly Building between 1924 and 1938 are exhibited in the hall that Atatürk received the representatives of foreign countries and that is one of the most important halls in the building.
The second floor of the Museum is not open for visits because of the static status of the building. Visits based on appointments shall be allowed in the future.